Roth, (2007) “Meanwhile, during the nineteenth century, philosophers and art historians such as Hegel and Jakob Burckhardt developed the interrelated views that history evolves as the result of an inner spiritual necessity, and that each perior in history is shaped by its unique zeitgeist, the spirit of the age.” (p. 459)
Roth, (2007) “Hector Guinard, Metro Station (Les Abbesses), Montnartre, Paris, 1900-1913. Using forms inspired by plants, Guinard devised a system of standardized cast-iron and ceramic parts to creat entry gates for the new electric underground mass transit system.” (p.514)
Roth, (2007) “It was from Behrens that Mies derived the concept of the artist as agent of the taste of the age, and of architecture as being an expression of technical power. He also learned form Behrens a keen appreciation of detail and precision in both design and construction…” (p.469)
Massey, (1990) “Living room, David B. Gamble House, Pasadena, 1908, by Greene and Greene. Beautifully finished woodwork and stained glass represent the California version of Arts and Crafts. Japanese influence appears in the chair-backs and jointed timbers of the inglenook.” (p.21) The arts and crafts movement came to America in the 1920’s and became most popular in California. A major design element that can easily be spotted as arts and crafts artifact is the use of the material wood; where the joints are clearly shown and the wood is left plain.
Massey, (1990) “As a result of the 1929 Wall Street Crash American manufactures found themselves compelled to stimulate new markets for their products. Design grew in importance as it was recognized as a marketing tool. Individual designers began to enjoy almost film-star status as manufacturers discovered that design sold goods.” (p.109) Designers were feeling a tighten on there ability to design and sell what was always sold, because of the economical crash, they then had to rack their brains in order to rethink old ideas as well as come up with new ones. The compression at the time was on the economy which leads to a release of new and innovative design ideas and schemes.